“Train the present generation of developing professionals to approach existing and future problems with confidence and perseverance by providing knowledgebase and unique skills to continually develop a culture of ‘Lifelong Learning.”


PharmD program at Touro University College of Pharmacy – Courses Taught:
Fall 2018 – Present:
PBSN- 526: Pathophysiology- Fall 2018
PBSN- 527: Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry-I- Fall 2018
PBSN- 622: Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry-II- Fall 2018
PHPN- 784: Pharmacotherapeutics-IV – Fall 2018
PBSN- 529: Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry-II- Spring 2019
*PBSN- 623: Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry-III- Spring 2019 (*Course Coordinator)
Electives- Toxicology & Poisoning mgmt., Under development
APPE Electives – Under development

PharmD program at Manchester Univ- Courses Developed/ Taught – Fall 2011 to 2018:
[* denotes serving or served as course-coordinator)
*BioMedical Sciences-I: PhamD core 5 credit course (Med micro, Biotechnology, Cancer)
*Biomedical Sciences-II: PharmD core 5 credit course (Immunology, A&P and Pathophys)
*Introduction to Pharmacotherapeutics-PH-450-5 cr core (Drug Metabo, Toxicology & PGenomics portions)
*Integrated Pharmacotherapeutics- Immunopharmacology-Musculoskeletal-Integumentary-PH-555-3 cr core
*Integrated Pharmacotherapeutics- Pharmacology/Toxicology-PH-557- 3cr- core
*Principles of Clinical & Experimental Toxicology- PH-486- 2 cr Elective
*Pharmacogenomics-PH-580- 2 cr elective
*PharmD-Research Elective- PH-482 – elective (1- 4 cr)
*APPE- Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience – DILI- Drug-Induced Liver Injury- 4 cr Sr. elect
*APPE- Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience-Cancer and anticancer mechanisms- 4 cr Sr. elect [Routinely participated in OSCEs, Practice Labs, Organized Research seminars, Co-Curricular activities]

P2/P3 Students
PharmD Elective Courses Developed/Taught
(vi) Pharmacogenomics & Personalized Medicine [TS- 2 Cr Elective]
[Fundamental Principles of PGenomics & Personalized Medicine; Genomics of Drugs used in neurology, oncology, cancer, pulmonary, heaptic, cardiovascular and infectious diseases; Experimental portion involves principles of pharmacogenetics; Role of pharmacists in personalized medicine and drug-use management]

(vii) PharmD Research Elective: Spring/Fall/Summer [TS, 1 -3 Cr Elective]
[A combination of experimental and clinical toxicology: analysis of genomic and non-genomic events associated with toxic events, Oxidative stress & free radical biology, pathology & molecular pathology, cell injury and cytoprotective mechanisms; Mechanistic exploration of effects of phytochemicals in drug-induced cell injury and cell death; Pharmacists role in clinical science with a practice perspective]

(viii) PH-557: Principles of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology [Elective; TS-2 Cr]
[This course (part didactic and part laboratory) will discuss principles of organ toxicology, clinical toxicology, toxicity testing, and measurement of quantitative/qualitative end-points of toxicity. The lecture portion will involve discussion on mechanisms of drug or chemical-induced organ injury, various molecular mechanisms of cell injury and cell death, and toxicogenomics. The laboratory portion will cover serum chemistry analysis, histopathology and some biochemical assays. Knowledge gained in this course will significantly enhance understandings of toxic effects of a variety of drugs and toxicity assessment strategies that can be used during pharmacy practice.]

(ix) PharmD Research Elective: Spring/Fall/Summer [TS: 1 – 3 Cr, Elective]
[[A combination of experimental and clinical toxicology: analysis of genomic and non-genomic events associated with toxic events, Oxidative stress & free radical biology, cell injury and cytoprotective mechanisms; Mechanistic exploration of effects of phytochemicals in drug-induced cell injury and cell death; Pharmacists role in clinical science with a practice perspective]


(x) DILI- Drug-Induced Liver Injury- Offered Fall 2015- 4 Cr
[This APPE rotation is partly didactic and partly experimental. Course experience will allow students to enhance their skills to understand and interpret various forms of Drug-induced liver injury based on clinical and laboratory findings. Didactic presentations will provide in-depth understandings on how various classes of drugs induce different forms of liver injury in clinical settings with special emphasis on ‘mechanisms of liver injury’. Students will gain perspectives on analyzing drug-interactions, adverse drug events, toxicity and side effects of hepatotoxic drugs along with clinical perspectives on the management of DILI. Experimental portion will provide experience on how to assess/diagnose liver injury based on signs and symptoms and assess multiple clinical parameters. Students go through relevant chapters of ‘GoldFrank’s Toxicological Emergencies’ and solve case-studies.]

Course Activities:
1. Lecture presentations on foundational & advanced topics
2. GROUP Student presentation on specific forms of DILI (TBL and active learning]
3. Individual Student presentation on specific forms of DILI
4. Group Interactions on Clinical Perspectives of DILI
5. Case-Study Analysis/ Discussions
6. Detailed discussion on Management of DILI
7. Laboratory experimentation on serum chemistry (DILI specific and parameters secondary to DILI)
8. Epidemiological Analysis of DILI
9. Assignments are designed to present opportunities to students to critically think and analyze the gaps (unexplored areas) in the DILI field and write a publishable research article [adequate guidance will be provided by the course director to work on this project]
10. Critically analyzing specific tasks and possibly publishing a manuscript (review) in a peer-reviewed journal.

[This APPE rotation is partly didactic and partly experimental. Course experience will allow students to enhance their analytical skills to understand and interpret various forms of cancer, cancer progression mechanisms, various carcinogens (cancer-causing chemicals and other agents), cell cycle dynamics underlying cancer development, mechanisms of actions of various naturally derived and manmade anticancer agents, and molecular mechanisms as to how anticancer agents work in the human body. Special emphasis will be placed on cancer genomics, cancer-preventing and cancer-modulating phytochemicals. Students will be able to apply knowledge gained from IPT-Heme/Onc in this APPE. Case-studies will involve discussion on anticancer-agent induced ADRs, ADEs, Toxicity and side effects most recently reported in the literature. Experimental portion will be primarily analysis of tissue samples exposed to carcinogens and develop analytical skills and understanding of pathomorphological changes.

Experiential activities of this APPE course:
1. Lecture presentations on foundational & advanced cancer topics.
2. GROUP Student presentation on specific types of cancer.
3. Individual Student presentation on specific forms of cancer, or cancer diagnosis or cancer treatment or ADRS-Side effects of anticancer agents.
4. Group Interactions on Clinical Perspectives of cancer (cancer diagnosis, prevention and management).
5. Case-Study Analysis/ Discussions
6. Detailed discussion on Management of cancer in clinical setting.
7. Laboratory excercise on cancer diagnosis based on histopathology.
8. Epidemiological Analysis (prevalence of various forms) of cancer.
9. Specific Assignments will present an opportunity to students to critically think and analyze the gaps (unexplored areas) in cancer.
10. Cancer Diagnostics (Molecular Diagnostics).
11. Initiating a specific task and possibly publishing a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal.

(xi) Participation in Objective Structured Clinical Exams

(xii) Participation in Inter Professional Educations


Cytogenetices, Immunogenetics and Cancer Genetics


(ix) Toxicology & Human Health: 4 Credit Elective [TS -ON OCCASION]

[This one‐semester undergraduate course which provides a comprehensive review of toxic effects of a variety of drugs, chemicals and carcinogens with a core focus on the modern approaches in prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic toxicities. It is uniquely designed for biology, chemistry, biology-chemistry and sports science majors who wish to pursue higher education in health professions (pharmacy, medicine, nursing and physical therapy) as well as a career in academia, industry and other research settings. Core topics will train the students to understand how chemical entities interact with biological processes and the ultimate fate of foreign chemicals in human body, the significance of biotransformation reactions and its consequences in the human body. The impact of xenobiotics on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular targets yielding to pathophysiological responses relevant to human health will be discussed in depth. Additional focus will be on: drug metabolism and to identify underlying susceptibility factors (based on pharmacogenomics & toxicogenomics) which contribute to the ability of chemicals to elicit toxigenic effects leading to human disease. Analysis of the role of toxicology in human health and disease is a common theme of this course.]


Professional-PharmD : SPRING COURSES

(i) PH-132: Medical Microbiology and Immunology–3 Credit-Core [TS]

[This course provides an in depth study of the microbial world with emphasis on the nature and behavior of microorganisms, the interrelationships that operate between microbes and the human host in health and disease, and the principles of prevention and control of infectious disease. Several lectures will emphasize principles involved in pathological and immunological changes induced by various microbes (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, helminths, chlamydiae, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, L-forms, prions) and the applications of these subjects to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The topics emphasized are both basic and advanced mechanisms involved in infection and immunity encompassing natural and induced modes of host defense. Control of microbial growth (sterilization and disinfection) along with basic concepts of antimicrobial therapy is also discussed. Topics in immunology include immunity mechanisms, vaccination strategies, immune-related diseases, and issues related to organ transplantation. Biotechnology and the use of microorganisms in the production of biopharmaceuticals will be an additional focus.]

(ii) PH-271: Advanced Medical Microbiology–3 credit-Elective [TS]

[A combination of laboratory principles along with some of the modern methodologies will be emphasized in this curriculum. The primary goal will be to expose students to these avenues from a practice standpoint. Laboratory skills and practices [such as lab safety, aseptic techniques, environmental growth conditions, microscopy, differential staining, media preparation and characteristics, classification of microorganisms, antibiotic sensitivity testing, filtration and sterilization, operation and maintenance of basic laboratory equipment, sample collection and processing, biochemical and morphological identification of microbes and a variety of immunological techniques] mastered in this elective when integrated with knowledge obtained through Medical Microbiology and Immunology will significantly enhance the understanding of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Experience gained in this course will immensely help during subsequent years of the program (clerkship/ hospital rotation), and during professional pharmacy practice.

(iii) PH-430: Toxicology/Iatrogenic Disease–3 Credit-Core [TS]

[This course is designed to discuss unfavorable or deleterious effects of iatrogenic diseases and/or therapeutic and/or diagnostic drug regimens. Lecture material will emphasize on clinically relevant drug-induced adverse reactions at biochemical, cellular and molecular levels on various target organs in the body, and clinical manifestations of target organ-toxicity related problems of the patients undergoing treatment. In addition, the course will discuss unwanted responses that follow multiple drug therapy (drug interactions), diagnostic procedures and/or use of any diagnostic agent. Adverse effects on target organs emanating from iatrogenic errors will be an important focus. Special lectures will be on interpretation of drug screens, functions of poison control centers, various forms of bioterrorism, natural and man-made agents used in terrorism and detailed procedures to follow during disaster preparedness management. Knowledge gained in this course can be utilized in advising patients about expected adverse effects of their medications and/or diagnostic regimens including non-drug exposure-related consequences of iatrogenic origin. The didactic material will be supplemented by case reports from the literature. The reading assignments will include, but will not be limited to, researching of overdose treatment protocols and other iatrogenic scenarios from the medical literature.]

(iv) Pharmacology & Medicinal Chemistry: 2-3 recitations (1 Cr each; TT- core course]

(v) Physiology/Pathophysiology Recitation: 2-3 recitations (1 Cr each; TT- core course]

(vi) Clinical Therapeutics Recitations: 1 -3 recitations [1 Cr each; TT- core course]

(vii) Physical Assessment Labs: 1-3 labs (1 Cr each; TT Core course)

(viii) PH-599: Special Projects (Research)- Offered Spring/Summer/Fall [TS]

(ix) APPE- Advanced Research-Lab [Elective: Offered to select students; on occasion, TS]


[All core courses offered once a year/Electives every other semester]

(i) PTM-802: Exp. Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology–4 Credit-Core [Fall/Spring; TS]

[A laboratory course designed to provide exposure to an array of modern techniques used in pharmacology-toxicology research and clinical toxicology laboratories. Students will receive hands-on experience on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of drugs and chemicals directly and/or indirectly from biological specimens, and several cutting-edge molecular biological techniques. Major emphasis is placed upon to evaluate the pharmacological and toxicological effects of drugs and chemicals on animal systems. Experimentation includes whole animal studies, isolated tissue techniques, organ perfusion, molecular techniques, and analytical instrumentation used in a modern biomedical research facility. Experimental techniques are designed to meet the needs of pharmacists, non-pharmacists, pharmacologists and toxicologists with a focus on current trends and recent developments. This course is also structured for students interested in pursuing a research career in pharmaceutical industry, academia and other research setting. Overall, students will acquire analytical skills to work in any modern biomedical research laboratory.]

(ii) PTM-910: Toxicology of Drugs & Chemicals- 3 Credit-Core [Fall/Spring/Summer TS]

[A classic mechanistic course that provides a comprehensive review of toxic effects of a variety of drugs and chemicals, the current trends and recent developments in the prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic toxicities emanating from toxic exposures. It is uniquely designed for pharmacy and nonpharmacy majors who wish to pursue a toxicology career in academia, industry and other research settings. Specialized topics discusses the scientific principles and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of various drugs and chemicals, introduce the challenges within the field of toxicology and future direction of this discipline. Emphasis is placed upon various routes of toxicant exposures, toxicant uptake and metabolism, their biodistribution and diverse toxic outcomes. Special focus is placed upon: (i) American Association of Poison Control Center’s list of poisons and their interactions with biological systems at the molecular, cellular and organismal levels; (ii) drug-induced target-organ toxicities (accidental, intentional and/or therapeutic exposures including diagnostic drug regimens); (iii) interpretation of toxicology screenings (drug screens); (iv) various forms of terrorisms (chemical and nuclear) and (v) procedures that are followed during and after a natural or man-made disaster. State-of-the-art in vivo and in vitro methodologies used in toxicity testing/safety evaluations by pharmaceutical industry and federal agencies will also be a part of the syllabus. Each and every topic will briefly discuss overdose treatment protocols and various antidotes.]

(iii) PTM-020: Seminars in Pharmacology & Toxicology- 3 credit core [Fall/Spring: TS]

(iv) PTM-917: Molecular Toxicology–3 Credit-Elective [Fall/Spring TS]

[This course will consist of lectures, discussions, VIDEO presentations, animations and seminars. Students enrolled in this course will learn the newest and most powerful technologies in molecular and cellular biology and their applications to toxicology. The overall focus will be to understand how toxicants and cellular stressors perturb cellular signaling pathways ultimately deregulating molecular events afflicting gene expression and how genetic alterations influence toxicity and human disease outcomes. The students are expected to: (i) develop a comprehensive understanding of biochemical and molecular changes caused by a wide array of toxicants in living systems, (ii) be able to critically select necessary molecular tools for hypothesis-driven mechanistic research, and (iii) explain mechanisms underlying how natural and man-made antidotes impede organotoxic effects by influencing toxin-induced gene expression. Events associated with free radicals production and their impact on gene expression and signaling pathways during toxin-induced perturbations will be analyzed in depth. Specific topics will address DNA damage/DNA repair pathways, oxidative stress-induced cell injury and cell death, mitochondrial events that contribute to cell survival and cell death, and miscellaneous nuclear and cytoplasmic events that breakdown intracellular chaos or orchestrate cellular stability. With this knowledge, enrollees will understand how drugs are tested, how risk is assessed and how mechanisms of action of chemicals can be determined using molecular tools. Thus, students will learn how to apply molecular and cellular biology to health sciences research and understand basic pharmacologic and toxicologic principles.]

(v) PTM-707: Carcinogens, Teratogens & Mutagens–3 Cr. Elective; [TS]

[This course provides a comprehensive review of toxicologic principles, and understanding carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic processes; importance of this field to pharmacists, pharmacologists and toxicologists. Metabolism of carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens, and their cellular, subcellular, & molecular targets. In vivo and in vitro evaluation methods. Carcinogen-induced gene expression and its implications: biological control mechanisms. Concept of molecular toxicology, oncogenes, and antioncogens and their role in cancer. Special topics in Carcinogenesis devotes to examining the pharmacological aspects of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, regulation of gene expression, carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis, drug-target interaction and the consequential development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis sections will provide an in-depth overview of mutagenic and teratogenic agents, their mechanisms of actions. Roles of natural and man-made anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-teratogenic compounds are discussed.]

(vi) PTM-070- Research Thesis/Special Problems in Pharmacy–3 Cr.Elective [Spr/Fall/Summer; TS]

(vii) Environmental Toxicology – 3 Cr. Elective [Fall/Spring; TS]

[The purpose of this course is to provide a deep understanding of the implications of basic principles of toxicology and its relevance to environmental toxins, and toxic effects of environmental chemicals on human health and the environment. Specific lectures will provide an opportunity for students to broaden their knowledge of the interactions of toxic elements and chemicals (drugs, pesticides, industrial pollutants, and natural products) with organisms and the environment. Adequate emphasis will be placed upon discussion on how human-health is dependent upon the well-being of other species and upon the availability of clean air, water, and food. Concepts to be covered include occurrence and formation of toxicants, injury process and action of toxicants, factors affecting xenobiotic action, defense responses to toxicants, and others. Specific topics will also focus on how natural and man-made disasters can directly and indirectly influence eco-systems ultimately impacting all living organisms. The course will also examine chemicals of environmental interest (e.g. phytotoxins, CCl4, CHCl3, TCDD, PAHs, Pb, Cd, Hg, Al, nitrosamines, auto emissions, and workplace exposures, endocrine disrupting and carcinogenic chemicals), and how they are tested and regulated. The role of environmental toxicologist to understand, examine and critically analyze the complex environmental systems, and help establish limits for various compounds and to identify new challenges in the continuously changing environment will be discussed.]

(viii) PTM-060- Research Thesis/Special Problems in Pharmacy–3 Cr.Elective [Spr/Fall/Sum; TS]

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